Integration of programmed instructon into mathematics and science teaching: A panacea to students dwindling interest in mathematics and science in Nigerian schools
Omoniyi Israel Oginni, Olabode Thomas Owolab
This study examined Programmed Instruction (PI) a panacea to students’ dwindling interest in mathematics. Descriptive research of survey design was adopted for the study. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from a sample of seven hundred and fifty (750) respondents which include 700 Students and 50 Teachers from Public and Private Secondary Schools in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State in Nigeria. The study revealed that usage of programmed instruction beef up curiosity in mathematics students and resulted to greater retention and mastery of subject matter. Also, the study revealed that lack of trained personnel to help guide students in the use of programmed books, scarcity of programmed books in the society, high cost of procuring programmed books and machine and lack of necessary infrastructural facilities have been the factors militating against the implementation of programmed instruction in schools. Based on the findings, it was recommended that curriculum experts should develop various using the programmed instruction approach. Government should release fund for the development of programmed books and school authority should encourage their teachers to attend seminars and workshops, were they could gain knowledge of how to implement programmed instruction and other pedagogical skills that will enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics.
Keywords: Programmed instruction, mathematics teaching, science teaching
The effects of analogy on students' understanding of direct current circuits and attitudes towards physics lessons
Gokhan Ugur, Refik Dilber, Yasemin Senpolat, Bahattin Duzgun
This study investigated the effects of analogy on the elimination of students’ misconceptions about direct current circuits, students’ achievement and the attitudes towards physics lessons. The sample of this study consisted of 51 11th grade students from two different classes. While one of the classes was the experimental group where analogy was used in the lessons, the other class was the control group where the traditional methods are employed in lessons and this selection was made randomly. When the obtained results were examined, it was seen that teaching with analogy has a significantly positive effect on the elimination of misconception and achievement although it has almost no effect on the attitudes of towards physics.
Keywords: Analogy, teaching, physics education, students, achievement
University childcare teachers' perceptions, beliefs, and thoughts about their profession and jobs: A Turkish case
Ummuhan Yeşil Dağlı, Remziye Ceylan
This research investigated perceptions, feelings and thoughts of early childhood teachers, working at university campus childcare centers in Turkey, regarding their profession and job. Understanding how they make the meaning of challenges, issues, difficulties, and enjoyment, and then connecting those to their job satisfaction, burnout, and stress were the goals. A total of nine early childhood teachers participated in the study. Using a phenomenological research design, two semi-structured focus group interviews, lasting about two hours, were conducted. Results showed that, overall, campus childcare teachers in this study enjoyed working with children despite their challenges of working with parents, low pay, and long and uncompensated work hours. The quality of the relationship with parents seems to have a very powerful effect on teachers’ job satisfaction and on their motivation. On the other hand, their love for children and passion about their work as well as having positive work environment help them re-build their motivation. Their personal and collective efficacy helps maintainıng their dedication and commitment to the profession.
Keywords: Childcare teachers, job-satisfaction, burnout
Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning
Amal Abu-Shakra, Eric Saliim
A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The study revealed that university education levels among the participants in the study significantly enhanced awareness of the body systems affected by lead poisoning, whereas age significantly enhanced awareness of the treatment of lead poisoning, its prevalence, causes, and the body systems affected. A majority of the participants showed interest in learning about lead poisoning (67%), but perhaps not only through a university seminar (42%). The project showed that involvement of students in innovative communication avenues between universities and communities, aimed at enhancing public awareness of a major environmental health risk, is possible through a biology course project in which students are part of the project’s development, implementation and analysis. Also, such an educational research project can, despite some limitations, offer educational opportunities that can intensify the students’ interest in the course and knowledge of the research topic.
Keywords: Childhood lead poisoning, community awareness, service learning
Changes in and the relationship between language learning motivation and self-concept in 11-14 year-old students in Hungary: A longitudional study
Motivation to learn foreign languages is a significant determinant of successful language acquisition. The subject has been widely researched in the past, and since the early 1990s a great deal of empirical research related to the classroom environment has been proposed to expand theory into everyday classroom practice. I present an empirical, longitudinal (3-year) study to explore the relationship between and changes in foreign language learning motivation, learning motivation and self-concept in the 5th, 6th and 8th forms of elementary school. The same tests (Kozéki-Entwistle’s Learning Motivation Questionnaire, the Tenessee SelfConcept Scale, and Clément, Dörnyei and Noels’ Foreign Language Learning Motivation questionnaire) were administered three times, so I was able to compare the results and draw conclusions about developmental tendencies. A strong correlation was found between motivational and self-esteem scores, and between learning and foreign language learning motivation subscales. It is necessary to highlight the importance of the Moral, Family and Social Self, which draws our attention to the family values and beliefs students are equipped with, when they enter the school. The significant decrease in motivation and self-esteem in the period under investigation focuses our attention on problems of adolescence, and challanges language teachers to establish a highly motivating classroom practice.
Keywords: Language acquisition, language learning motivation, self-concept
Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-II: Assessing community awareness of legionnaires' disease?
For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires’ disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The study showed that the age of the participant was a major factor in enhancing awareness of LD, whereas education was a minor factor at best. Differences in responses among the age groups were strongly significant for general LD awareness, knowledge of its causes and prevalence, as well as body systems affected, prevention and treatment. Interest among the participants in learning more about LD (68%) was higher than in attending a university seminar on the topic (54%). This study provided many educational opportunities to the students to enhance and apply their data analysis skills and to intensify several aspects of their knowledge acquisition and communication skills. Fostering the active involvement of students in an educational activity that can set the stage for an innovative university-community partnership on enhancing awareness of the preventable environmental disease LD is of benefit to all stakeholders.
Keywords: Legionnaires’ disease, community awareness, service learning
Understanding mathematics: Some key factors
Asma Amanat Ali, Norman Reid
Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was explored along with a survey of areas of difficulty and student attitudes. This involved looking at student perceptions of their experiences, the nature of the difficulties they have with mathematics and possible reasons for these difficulties. The overall aim is to explore the extent of the effect of working memory and to gain insights so that practical ways forward to enhance mathematics education can be identified. It was found that limited working memory capacity has a very strong influence on performance, confirming other studies. Indeed, if the cognitive load exceeds the capacity of working memory, understanding becomes a casualty, with consequent attitude deterioration. Students need to be able to see that mathematics has a purpose in being able to be applied to real-life situations. However, attempts to develop applications may often generate further working memory overload.
Keywords: Working memory capacity, attitudes to mathematics, difficulties in mathematics, cognitive overload